Employment-based visas that lead to permanent residence in the U.S., or a green card, have several different preference groups with different eligibility requirements. Most of these preference groups require a foreign national to have a full-time job offer in the United States and the filing of a labor certification application with the Department of Labor to obtain an official certification from the government agency that there is a shortage in the U.S. workforce before being able to proceed with the green card process. A foreign national generally cannot sponsor themselves. Employers may often be hesitant to sponsor a foreign national because the process can be expensive and time-consuming.
Fortunately, there are a few exceptions. Under the second employment-based preference category, EB-2, a foreign national would not need a specific job offer or labor certification if he or she were eligible for a National Interest Waiver (NIW). To be eligible, a foreign national must demonstrate they are (1) a member of a profession holding an advanced degree (doctorate, masters, or bachelor’s degree with five years of progressive work experience); or (2) a foreign national of “exceptional ability” whose employment will be of the “national interest.”
There are evidentiary requirements for demonstrating a foreign national’s area of work will be of national interest, but neither Congress nor UCSIS has defined national interest in an attempt to allow the law to be as flexible as possible.
The H-1B visa is issued to those skilled foreign workers who have a bachelor’s degree or higher in the specialty occupation for which they are being issued the visa. US employers sponsor the foreign worker and file a labor condition application (LCA) with the U.S. Department of Labor, and the employer makes several attestations in the LCA, mainly the following: the H-1B worker is being paid the same wage as U.S. workers who have similar experience and qualifications for that specific employment; employment of the non-immigrant does not adversely affect working conditions of other workers similarly employed;, and notice of filing the application was provided to workers employed in the occupation at the place where the H-1B worker would be employed.
Problems with H-1 visa:
Practitioners and applicants for the H-1B visa find that the most salient problem with the H-1B visa filing is the annual cap. Currently, the visa cap is set at 65,000, with an exemption for 20,000 nonimmigrants who hold master’s degrees or higher. The problem is that the number of applicants greatly outstrips the number of available visas, often resulting in the visa cap being filled on the very first days when filings are accepted.
Therefore, potential H-1B applicants may try to explore alternative methods to enter or stay in the US, without having to deal with the visa cap. One possibility is that worker may come to the US under a B-1 visa. However, this approach is somewhat controversial and not yet widely accepted or understood within the different the government agencies. Consular posts may not know how to properly adjudicate these applications and even if granted, foreign nationals may encounter problems at the port of entry when the Customs and Border Patrol (CBP) officers are not willing to grant them admission. The United States Citizenship & Immigration Services (USCIS) and its predecessor, the legacy Immigration and Nationality Services (INS), have traditionally been hostile to this visa category and viewed it with much skepticism. Therefore, employers and foreign nationals wishing to pursue this visa option should understand the requirements and proceed with caution.