Naturalization 101

NATURALIZATION AND REMOVAL

When a non-citizen wants to become a United States citizen, that person must undergo a process known as naturalization. There are many benefits in becoming a U.S. citizen. A U.S. citizen can travel more freely; he can vote; and he can apply for more jobs, including government positions. Citizens are more eligible to apply for public benefits such as full Social Security, Supplemental Security Income, food stamps, and have access to certain loans, mortgages and scholarships. Finally, U.S. citizens would not be subject to deportation or removal proceedings.

WHAT IS REQUIRED FOR SOMEONE TO BECOME NATURALIZED?

An immigrant must be older than 18, be a permanent resident for 5 years (or 3 years for those who have gained permanent residency through a U.S. spouse), demonstrate good moral character, prove continuous residence and physical presence in the U.S., and be able to read, write and speak basic English (this last requirement may be waived in certain cases such as if the person has a permanent impairment that prevents them from being able to learn and understand English). In addition, the permanent resident must file an N-400, undergo an interview, pass a civics and ethics test, and take the Oath of Allegiance to the United States.

WHEN IS NATURALIZATION NOT THE BEST OPTION?

Naturalization may not be the best course for every permanent resident. The naturalization application is usually the last time for the immigration officials to review the immigrant’s case and determine both whether the person is eligible to naturalize and whether he is eligible to stay in the United States. Any inconsistencies in the naturalization application, such as evidence of immigration violations, criminal conduct or abandonment of his permanent residence status, may actually subject the immigrant to removal proceedings. Someone who is interested in becoming a U.S. citizen but is not sure of his eligibility should consult with an immigration attorney.

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